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The Art Of Effective Communication - Tony Robbins
Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication , chronemic communication , gestures , body language , facial expressions , eye contact , and how one dresses. Nonverbal communication also relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. It affects communication most at the subconscious level and establishes trust. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Wazlawick's laws: Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals received. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, face, voice, appearance, touch, distance, timing, and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can also have non-verbal attributes. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal[ edit ] Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols sometimes known as lexemes and the grammars rules by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages tend to share certain properties, although there are exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto , programming languages , and various mathematical formalism is not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. As previously mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol the relationship between a word , the referent the thing it describes , and the meaning the thought associated with the word and the thing The properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules sounds that appear in a language , syntactic rules arrangement of words and punctuation in a sentence , semantic rules the agreed upon meaning of words , and pragmatic rules meaning derived upon context. The meanings that are attached to words can be literal, or otherwise known as denotative; relating to the topic being discussed, or, the meanings take context and relationships into account, otherwise known as connotative; relating to the feelings, history, and power dynamics of the communicators. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study. The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions": The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile. Pictograms began to develop standardized and simplified forms. The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper , papyrus, clay, wax, and other media with commonly shared writing systems, leading to adaptable alphabets. The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation i. Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. Gregory Bateson called it "the replication of tautologies in the universe. Business communication Business communication is used for a wide variety of activities including, but not limited to: Companies with limited resources may choose to engage in only a few of these activities, while larger organizations may employ a full spectrum of communications. Since it is difficult to develop such a broad range of skills, communications professionals often specialize in one or two of these areas but usually have at least a working knowledge of most of them. By far, the most important qualifications communications professionals can possess are excellent writing ability, good 'people' skills, and the capacity to think critically and strategically. Political[ edit ] Communication is one of the most relevant tools in political strategies, including persuasion and propaganda. In mass media research and online media research, the effort of the strategist is that of getting a precise decoding, avoiding "message reactance", that is, message refusal. The reaction to a message is referred also in terms of approach to a message, as follows: In "radical reading" the audience rejects the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. In "dominant reading", the audience accepts the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. In "subordinate reading" the audience accepts, by and large, the meanings, values, and worldview built into the text by its makers. The modern political communication field is highly influenced by the framework and practices of "information operations" doctrines that derive their nature from strategic and military studies. According to this view, what is really relevant is the concept of acting on the Information Environment. The information environment is the aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. This environment consists of three interrelated dimensions, which continuously interact with individuals, organizations, and systems. These dimensions are known as physical, informational, and cognitive. Open and honest communication creates an atmosphere that allows family members to express their differences as well as love and admiration for one another. It also helps to understand the feelings of one another. Family communication study looks at topics such as family rules, family roles or family dialectics and how those factors could affect the communication between family members. Researchers develop theories to understand communication behaviors. Family communication study also digs deep into certain time periods of family life such as marriage, parenthood or divorce and how communication stands in those situations. It is important for family members to understand communication as a trusted way which leads to a well constructed family. Interpersonal[ edit ] In simple terms, interpersonal communication is the communication between one person and another or others. It is often referred to as face-to-face communication between two or more people. Both verbal and nonverbal communication, or body language , play a part in how one person understands another. In verbal interpersonal communication there are two types of messages being sent: Content messages are messages about the topic at hand and relational messages are messages about the relationship itself. It also explores the concept that stuttering during speech shows the audience that there is a problem or that the situation is more stressful. Emotional Triggers focus on events or people that tend to set off intense, emotional reactions within individuals. This is the study of how individuals explain what causes different events and behaviors. It takes into consideration tone, volume, and choice of words. As well as the physical tone of the words. This theory is explored by Dawn J. Lipthrott in the article What IS Relationship? What is Ethical Partnership? Ten Lessons for Negotiators - Conflict in Couples  This focuses on the impact that social media has on relationships. As well as how to communicate through conflict. This theory is explored by Amanda Lenhart and Maeve Duggan in their paper Couples, the Internet, and Social Media Barriers to effectiveness[ edit ] Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message or intention of the message being conveyed. This may result in failure of the communication process or cause an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness  This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient. Physical barriers- Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists if staff is located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. System design- System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them. Attitudinal barriers- Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or simply resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible. Individual linguistic ability- The use of jargon , difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion fails. Bypassing-These happens when the communicators sender and the receiver do not attach the same symbolic meanings to their words. It is when the sender is expressing a thought or a word but the receiver takes it in a different meaning. For example- ASAP, Rest room Technological multi-tasking and absorbency- With a rapid increase in technologically-driven communication in the past several decades, individuals are increasingly faced with condensed communication in the form of e-mail, text, and social updates. This has, in turn, led to a notable change in the way younger generations communicate and perceive their own self-efficacy to communicate and connect with others. With the ever-constant presence of another "world" in one's pocket, individuals are multi-tasking both physically and cognitively as constant reminders of something else happening somewhere else bombard them. Though perhaps too new of an advancement to yet see long-term effects, this is a notion currently explored by such figures as Sherry Turkle. If we exercise simple practices to improve our communication skill, we can become effective communicators. For example, read an article from the newspaper or collect some news from the television and present it in front of the mirror. This will not only boost your confidence but also improve your language and vocabulary. Gender barriers- Most communicators whether aware or not, often have a set agenda. This is very notable among the different genders. For example, many women are found to be more critical in addressing conflict.
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