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Taking a photo for your online dating profile without the help of a professional photographer
Digital camera In , Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In , Kodak unveiled the DCS , the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications. Digital photography dominates the 21st century. Synthesis photography[ edit ] Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery CGI where the shooting process is modeled on real photography. The CGI, creating digital copies of real universe, requires a visual representation process of these universes. Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows artists to move into areas beyond the grasp of real photography. These include the camera; stereoscopy; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques. Camera The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate , photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device CCD or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper. The camera or ' camera obscura ' is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used see Process camera. As soon as photographic materials became "fast" sensitive enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch the Ticka camera or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens. The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" number of frames per second. While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion. Stereoscopy Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods including cell phone cameras. Dualphotography An example of a dualphoto using a smartphone based app Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once e. The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography , where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue or cyan, yellow and magenta colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet blue window and infrared primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters. Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography , geology , forensics and law enforcement. Light field photography[ edit ] See also: Light-field camera Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" also known as synthetic aperture photography. This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured. These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm. Devices other than cameras can be used to record images. Trichome of Arabidopsis thaliana seen via scanning electron microscope. Note that image has been edited by adding colors to clarify structure or to add an aesthetic effect. Heiti Paves from Tallinn University of Technology. Other imaging techniques[ edit ] Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures. The quality of some amateur work is comparable to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera. A photograph taken by an amateur photographer in Lebanon. Indianapolis as a panorama and a modified fisheye image by an amateur photographer with image editing software Downtown Indianapolis in a large panorama image The same image but modified with a fisheye lens -style technique into a circle Commercial[ edit ] Example of a studio-made food photograph. Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for images rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include: These images, such as packshots , are generally done with an advertising agency , design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography , like the work featured in Harper's Bazaar , emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men's magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work nude. Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well as the atmosphere including the crowd. Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue. Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details. Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes. Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills. Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine. These are usually assigned by the magazine and encompass fashion and glamour photography features. Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story. Portrait and wedding photography: Landscape photography depicts locations. Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of animals. Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people. Pet photography involves several aspects that are similar to traditional studio portraits. It can also be done in natural lighting, outside of a studio, such as in a client's home. Landscape degree panoramic picture of the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert , Chile. In the center is Cerro Chajnantor itself. Magazines and newspapers, companies putting up Web sites, advertising agencies and other groups pay for photography. Many people take photographs for commercial purposes. Organizations with a budget and a need for photography have several options: Photo stock can be procured through traditional stock giants, such as Getty Images or Corbis ; smaller microstock agencies, such as Fotolia ; or web marketplaces, such as Cutcaster. Classic Alfred Stieglitz photograph, The Steerage shows unique aesthetic of black-and-white photos. During the 20th century, both fine art photography and documentary photography became accepted by the English-speaking art world and the gallery system. Holland Day , and Edward Weston , spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism , often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beautiful to the viewer. Clive Bell in his classic essay Art states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art. There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions?
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