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Bienville was appointed as royal governor of French Louisiana in By this treaty, France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain. This area was made a part of the expanded British West Florida colony. The British were eager not to lose any useful inhabitants and promised religious tolerance to the French colonists; ultimately French colonists remained in Mobile. Jews had not been allowed to officially reside in colonial French Louisiana due to the Code Noir , a decree passed by France's King Louis XIV in that forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, and ordered all Jews out of France's colonies. Most of these colonial-era Jews in Mobile were merchants and traders from Sephardic Jewish communities in Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina ; they added to the commercial development of Mobile. They took the opportunity to order Bernardo de Galvez , Governor of Louisiana, on an expedition east to retake West Florida. The Spanish wished to eliminate any British threat to their Louisiana colony west of the Mississippi River, which they had received from France in the Treaty of Paris. Due to strong trade ties, many residents of Mobile and West Florida remained loyal to the British Crown. Alabama was granted statehood in ; Mobile's population had increased to by that time. River transportation was aided by the introduction of steamboats in the early decades of the 19th century. A plantation economy using slave labor developed in the region and as a consequence Mobile's population exploded. It came to be settled by attorneys, cotton factors , doctors, merchants and other professionals seeking to capitalize on trade with the upriver areas. From the s onward, Mobile expanded into a city of commerce with a primary focus on the cotton and slave trades. Many slaves were transported by ship in the coastwise slave trade from the Upper South. There were many businesses in the city related to the slave trade — people to make clothes, food, and supplies for the slave traders and their wards. This was cut short in part by the Panic of and yellow fever epidemics. The last slaves to enter the United States from the African trade were brought to Mobile on the slave ship Clotilde. Among them was Cudjoe Lewis , who in the s was the last survivor of the slave trade. Many early Jewish families were descendants of Sephardic Jews who had been among the earliest colonial settlers in Charleston and Savannah. Hunley , the first submarine to sink an enemy ship, was built in Mobile. Lee 's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse , the city surrendered to the Union army to avoid destruction after Union victories at nearby Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. On May 25, , the city suffered great loss when some three hundred people died as a result of an explosion at a federal ammunition depot on Beauregard Street. One example can be provided by the value of Mobile's exports during this period of depression. The turn of the 20th century brought the Progressive Era to Mobile. The economic structure developed with new industries, generating new jobs and attracting a significant increase in population. In , the city government passed Mobile's first racial segregation ordinance, segregating the city streetcars. It legislated what had been informal practice, enforced by convention. Considered to be progressive, as it would reduce the power of ward bosses, this change resulted in the elite white majority strengthening its power, as only the majority could gain election of at-large candidates. In addition, poor whites and blacks had already been disenfranchised. Mobile was one of the last cities to retain this form of government, which prevented smaller groups from electing candidates of their choice. But Alabama's white yeomanry had historically favored single-member districts in order to elect candidates of their choice. Sometime in the late s they came ashore off cargo ships arriving from South America. The ants were carried in the soil used as ballast on those ships. The company built of these oil tankers during WWII. During World War II , the defense buildup in Mobile shipyards resulted in a considerable increase in the city's white middle-class and working-class population, largely due to the massive influx of workers coming to work in the shipyards and at the Brookley Army Air Field. A race riot broke out in May of whites against blacks. ADDSCO management had long maintained segregated conditions at the shipyards, although the Roosevelt administration had ordered defense contractors to integrate facilities. That year ADDSCO promoted 12 blacks to positions as welders, previously reserved for whites; and whites objected to the change by rioting on May The mayor appealed to the governor to call in the National Guard to restore order, but it was weeks before officials allowed African Americans to return to work,  keeping them away for their safety. In the late s, the transition to the postwar economy was hard for the city, as thousands of jobs were lost at the shipyards with the decline in the defense industry. Eventually the city's social structure began to become more liberal. Replacing shipbuilding as a primary economic force, the paper and chemical industries began to expand. No longer needed for defense, most of the old military bases were converted to civilian uses. Following the war, in which many African Americans had served, veterans and their supporters stepped up activism to gain enforcement of their constitutional rights and social justice, especially in the Jim Crow South. During the s the City of Mobile integrated its police force and Spring Hill College accepted students of all races. Unlike in the rest of the state, by the early s the city buses and lunch counters voluntarily desegregated. The city of Mobile did not establish a Cater Act board until The Mobile Area Chamber of Commerce, believing its members were better qualified to attract new businesses and industry to the area, considered the new IDB as a serious rival. After several years of political squabbling, the Chamber of Commerce emerged victorious. While McNally's IDB prompted the Chamber of Commerce to become more proactive in attracting new industry, the chamber effectively shut Mobile city government out of economic development decisions. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. The federal district court ordered that the three students be admitted to Murphy for the school year, leading to the desegregation of Mobile County's school system. But whites in the state had more than one way to reduce African Americans' voting power. Maintaining the city commission form of government with at-large voting resulted in all positions being elected by the white majority, as African Americans could not command a majority for their candidates in the informally segregated city. This and other factors related to industrial restructuring ushered in a period of economic depression that lasted through the s. The loss of jobs created numerous problems and resulted in loss of population as residents moved away for work. Downtown in , as seen from Cooper Riverside Park. Buildings include L to R: Mobile's city commission form of government was challenged and finally overturned in in City of Mobile v. Bolden , which was remanded by the United States Supreme Court to the district court. Finding that the city had adopted a commission form of government in and at-large positions with discriminatory intent, the court proposed that the three members of the city commission should be elected from single-member districts , likely ending their division of executive functions among them. Mobile's state legislative delegation in finally enacted a mayor-council form of government, with seven members elected from single-member districts. This was approved by voters. Since the change to single-member districts, more women and African Americans were elected to the council than under the at-large system. Geography Mobile is located in the southwestern corner of the U.
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