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These littermates were captured and imported in from Aleppo in Syria by Israel Aharoni , a zoologist of the University of Jerusalem. Years later, animals of this original breeding colony were exported to the USA, where Syrian hamsters became one of the most popular pets and laboratory animals. However, the differences in behavioral, chronobiological, morphometrical, hematological, and biochemical parameters are relatively small and fall into the expected range of interstrain variations in other laboratory animals. In several instances, he used the hamster to document the equal rights of all beings, including Homo sapiens. Lithuanian staras "hamster" ;  or of Persian origin cf. They have thick, silky fur, which can be long or short, colored black, grey, honey, white, brown, yellow, red, or a mix, depending on the species. Two species of hamster belonging to the genus Phodopus , Campbell's dwarf hamster P. The species of genus Phodopus are the smallest, with bodies 5. One rodent characteristic that can be highly visible in hamsters is their sharp incisors ; they have an upper pair and lower pair which grow continuously throughout life, so must be regularly worn down. Hamsters are very flexible, but their bones are somewhat fragile. They are extremely susceptible to rapid temperature changes and drafts, as well as extreme heat or cold. Senses Hamsters have poor eyesight; they are nearsighted and colorblind. They are also particularly sensitive to high-pitched noises and can hear and communicate in the ultrasonic range. Although pet hamsters can survive on a diet of exclusively commercial hamster food, other items, such as vegetables, fruits, seeds, and nuts, can be given. Hamsters in the Middle East have been known to hunt in packs to find insects for food. They carry food in their spacious cheek pouches to their underground storage chambers. When full, the cheeks can make their heads double, or even triple in size. If housed together, acute and chronic stress may occur,  and they may fight fiercely, sometimes fatally. Dwarf hamster species may tolerate conspecifics. Russian hamsters form close, monogamous bonds with their mates, and if separated, they may become very depressed. This happens especially in males. Males will become inactive, eat more, and even show some behavioral changes similar to some types of depression in humans. Chronobiology Evidence conflicts as to whether hamsters are crepuscular or nocturnal. Khunen writes, "Hamsters are nocturnal rodents who [ sic ] are active during the night These periods of torpor defined as "a state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility"  can last up 10 days. In the wild, the burrow buffers extreme ambient temperatures, offers relatively stable climatic conditions, and protects against predators. Syrian hamsters dig their burrows generally at a depth of 0. Laboratory hamsters have not lost their ability to dig burrows; in fact, they will do this with great vigor and skill if they are provided with the appropriate substrate. Both Syrian and Russian hamsters mature quickly and can begin reproducing at a young age 4—5 weeks , whereas Chinese hamsters will usually begin reproducing at two to three months of age, and Roborovskis at three to four months of age. The female's reproductive life lasts about 18 months, but male hamsters remain fertile much longer. Females are in estrus about every four days, which is indicated by a reddening of genital areas, a musky smell, and a hissing, squeaking vocalisation she will emit if she believes a male is nearby. This might not be very visible in all species. Male hamsters typically have very large testes in relation to their body size. Before sexual maturity occurs, it is more difficult to determine a young hamster's sex. When examined, female hamsters have their anal and genital openings close together, whereas males have these two holes farther apart the penis is usually withdrawn into the coat and thus appears as a hole or pink pimple. The breeding season is from April to October in the Northern Hemisphere, with two to five litters of one to 13 young being born after a gestation period of 16 to 23 days. The average litter size for Syrian hamsters is about seven pups, but can be as great as 24, which is the maximum number of pups that can be contained in the uterus. Campbell's dwarf hamsters tend to have four to eight pups in a litter, but can have up to Djungarian hamsters tend to have slightly smaller litters, as do Chinese and Roborovski hamsters. Intersexual aggression and cannibalism Female Chinese and Syrian hamsters are known for being aggressive toward the male if kept together for too long after mating. In some cases, male hamsters can die after being attacked by the female. If breeding hamsters, separation of the pair after mating is recommended, or they will attack each other. Female hamsters are also particularly sensitive to disturbances while giving birth, and may even eat their own young if they think they are in danger, although sometimes they are just carrying the pups in their cheek pouches. Weaning Play media An adult female and several juvenile dwarf hamsters Phodopus sungorus feeding Hamsters are born hairless and blind in a nest the mother will have prepared in advance. They are completely weaned after three weeks, or four for Roborovski hamsters. Most breeders will sell the hamsters to shops when they are three to nine weeks old. Longevity Syrian hamsters typically live no more than two to three years in captivity, and less in the wild. The smaller Roborovski hamster often lives to three years in captivity. It is also sometimes called a "fancy" hamster. The pet trade and fanciers have given names to several color variations, including "honey bear", "panda bear", "black bear", "European black bear", "polar bear", "teddy bear", and "Dalmatian". British zoologist Leonard Goodwin claimed most hamsters kept in the United Kingdom were descended from the colony he introduced for medical research purposes during the Second World War. Campbell's dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli is the most common—they are also sometimes called "Russian dwarfs"; however, many hamsters are from Russia, so this ambiguous name does not distinguish them from other species appropriately. The coat of the Djungarian or winter-white Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus sungorus turns almost white during winter when the hours of daylight decrease. Many breeders also show their hamsters, so breed towards producing a good, healthy, show hamster with a view to keeping one or two themselves, so quality and temperament are of vital importance when planning the breeding. A sable, short-haired golden hamster A Russian dwarf hamster.
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