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HE'S AN EXTROVERT, SHE'S AN INTROVERT
Extraversion[ edit ] Extraversion also spelled as extroversion  is the state of primarily obtaining gratification from outside oneself. Extraverts are energized and thrive off being around other people. They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, and business or political groups. They also tend to work well in groups. They tend to be energized when around other people, and they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves. Introversion[ edit ] Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one's own mental self. Few modern conceptions make this distinction. Introverts often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, using computers, hiking, or fishing. The archetypal artist, writer, sculptor, scientist, engineer, composer, and inventor are all highly introverted. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is usually an issue of significance: They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate, especially observed in developing children and adolescents. Introversion is a preference, while shyness stems from distress. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not necessarily fear social encounters like shy people do. Yeats , Steven Spielberg and Larry Page. In face of authority or in presence of strangers, the person may be introverted, however in the presence of family or close friends, the person may be highly energetic or extroverted. Relative prevalence[ edit ] Susan Cain 's book Quiet: Self-report measures are either lexical  or based on statements. Lexical measures use individual adjectives that reflect extravert and introvert traits, such as outgoing, talkative, reserved and quiet. Goldberg  developed a word measure as part of his word Big Five markers. Saucier  developed a briefer 8-word measure as part of his word mini-markers. However, the psychometric properties of Saucier's original mini-markers have been found suboptimal with samples outside of North America. Internal consistency reliability of the Extraversion measure for native English-speakers is reported as. Statement measures tend to comprise more words, and hence consume more research instrument space, than lexical measures. Respondents are asked the extent to which they, for example, Talk to a lot of different people at parties or Often feel uncomfortable around others. Moreover, the sometimes colloquial North American language of statements makes them less suited to use outside America. For instance, statements like Keep in the background and Know how to captivate people are sometimes hard for non-native English-speakers to understand except in a literal sense. Eysenck's theory[ edit ] Hans Eysenck described extraversion-introversion as the degree to which a person is outgoing and interactive with other people. These behavioral differences are presumed to be the result of underlying differences in brain physiology. Eysenck designated extraversion as one of three major traits in his P-E-N model of personality, which also includes psychoticism and neuroticism. Eysenck originally suggested that extraversion was a combination of two major tendencies, impulsiveness and sociability. He later added several other more specific traits, namely liveliness, activity level, and excitability. These traits are further linked in his personality hierarchy to even more specific habitual responses, such as partying on the weekend. Eysenck compared this trait to the four temperaments of ancient medicine, with choleric and sanguine temperaments equating to extraversion, and melancholic and phlegmatic temperaments equating to introversion. In terms of the environmental component, the shared family environment appears to be far less important than individual environmental factors that are not shared between siblings. He hypothesized that introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts. That extraverts require more external stimulation than introverts has been interpreted as evidence for this hypothesis. Other evidence of the "stimulation" hypothesis is that introverts salivate more than extraverts in response to a drop of lemon juice. This is due to increased activity in their reticular activating system , which responds to stimuli like food or social contact. One consequence of this is that extraverts can more easily learn the contingencies for positive reinforcement, since the reward itself is experienced as greater. One study found that introverts have more blood flow in the frontal lobes of their brain and the anterior or frontal thalamus , which are areas dealing with internal processing, such as planning and problem solving. Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus , temporal lobes , and posterior thalamus, which are involved in sensory and emotional experience. A study on regional brain volume found a positive correlation between introversion and grey matter volume in the right prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, as well as a positive correlation between introversion and total white matter volume. According to one study, extraverts tend to wear more decorative clothing, whereas introverts prefer practical, comfortable clothes. In general, extraverts decorate their offices more, keep their doors open, keep extra chairs nearby, and are more likely to put dishes of candy on their desks. These are attempts to invite co-workers and encourage interaction. Introverts, in contrast, decorate less and tend to arrange their workspace to discourage social interaction. Fleeson and Gallagher found that extraverts regularly behave in an introverted way, and introverts regularly behave in an extraverted way. Indeed, there was more within-person variability than between-person variability in extraverted behaviours. From this perspective, extraverts and introverts are not "fundamentally different". Rather, an "extravert" is just someone who acts more extraverted more often, suggesting that extraversion is more about what one "does" than what one "has". Additionally, a study by Lippa found evidence for the extent to which individuals present themselves in a different way. This is called expressive behaviour, and it is dependent upon the individuals' motivation and ability to control that behaviour. Lippa examined 68 students who were asked to role-play by pretending to teach a math class. This study found that actual introverts were perceived and judged as having more extraverted-looking expressive behaviours because they were higher in terms of their self-monitoring. Thus, individuals are able to regulate and modify behaviour based on their environmental situations. Humans are complex and unique, and because introversion-extraversion varies along a continuum, individuals may have a mixture of both orientations. A person who acts introverted in one situation may act extraverted in another, and people can learn to act in "counterdispositional" ways in certain situations. For example, Brian Little's free trait theory   suggests that people can take on "Free Traits", behaving in ways that may not be their "first nature", but can strategically advance projects that are important to them. Together, this presents an optimistic view of what extraversion is. Rather than being fixed and stable, individuals vary in their extraverted behaviours across different moments, and can choose to act extraverted to advance important personal projects or even increase their happiness, as mentioned above. Implications[ edit ] Acknowledging that introversion and extraversion are normal variants of behavior can help in self-acceptance and understanding of others. For example, an extravert can accept their introverted partner's need for space, while an introvert can acknowledge their extraverted partner's need for social interaction. Researchers have found a correlation between extraversion and self-reported happiness. That is, more extraverted people tend to report higher levels of happiness than introverts. Extraverts simply report experiencing more positive emotions, whereas introverts tend to be closer to neutral. This may be because extraversion is socially preferable in contemporary Western culture and thus introverts feel less desirable. In addition to the research on happiness, other studies have found that extraverts tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than introverts. David Meyers has claimed that happiness is a matter of possessing three traits: Meyers bases his conclusions on studies that report extraverts to be happier; these findings have been questioned in light of the fact that the "happiness" prompts given to the studies' subjects, such as "I like to be with others" and "I'm fun to be with," only measure happiness among extraverts. For example, extraverted youths are more likely to engage in antisocial or delinquent behavior. Although extraversion is associated with many positive outcomes like higher levels of happiness, those extraverted people are also likely to be exposed to interpersonally transmitted infectious disease as they tend to contact more people. When individuals are more vulnerable to infection, the cost of being social will be relatively greater. Therefore, people are less extraversive when they feel vulnerable and vice versa. Clients may respond better to different types of treatment depending on where they fall on the introversion-extraversion spectrum. Teachers can also consider temperament when dealing with their pupils, for example acknowledging that introverted children need more encouragement to speak in class while extraverted children may grow restless during long periods of quiet study. Furthermore, people who emigrate from islands to the mainland tend to be more extraverted than people that stay on islands, and those that immigrate to islands. Utah and the southeastern states of Florida and Georgia also score high on this personality trait. People who live in the northwestern states of Idaho , Montana , and Wyoming are also relatively introverted. Using the same positive affect and extraversion scales, Hills and Argyle  found that positive affect was again significantly correlated with extraversion. Also, the study by Emmons and Diener  showed that extraversion correlates positively and significantly with positive affect but not with negative affect. Similar results were found in a large longitudinal study by Diener , Sandvik, Pavot, and Fujita ,  which assessed 14, participants from areas of continental United States. However, the latter study did not control for neuroticism, an important covariate when investigating relationships between extraversion and positive affect or wellbeing. Specifically, the personality trait of extraversion is seen as a facilitator of more social interactions,    since the low cortical arousal among extraverts results in them seeking more social situations in order to increase their arousal. Therefore, it is believed that since extraverts are characterized as more sociable than introverts, they also possess higher levels of positive affect brought on by social interactions. Also, in the study of Argyle and Lu  extraverts were found to be less likely to avoid participation in noisy social activities, and to be more likely to participate in social activities such as: Similar results were reported by Diener , Larsen , and Emmons  who found that extraverts seek social situations more often than introverts, especially when engaging in recreational activities. However, a variety of findings contradict the claims of the social activity hypothesis. Firstly, it was found that extraverts were happier than introverts even when alone. Specifically, extraverts tend to be happier regardless of whether they live alone or with others, or whether they live in a vibrant city or quiet rural environment. Secondly, it was found that extraverts only sometimes reported greater amounts of social activity than introverts,  but in general extraverts and introverts do not differ in the quantity of their socialization. Thirdly, studies have shown that both extraverts and introverts participate in social relations, but that the quality of this participation differs. The more frequent social participation among extraverts could be explained by the fact that extraverts know more people, but those people are not necessarily their close friends, whereas introverts, when participating in social interactions, are more selective and have only few close friends with whom they have special relationships. They claimed that one of the fundamental qualities of social attention is its potential of being rewarding. Therefore, if a person shows positive emotions of enthusiasm , energy, and excitement, that person is seen favorably by others and he or she gains others' attention. This favorable reaction from others likely encourages extraverts to engage in further extraverted behavior. Temperamental view[ edit ] Temperamental view is based on the notion that there is a direct link between people's personality traits and their sensitivity to positive and negative affects. Also Zelenski and Larsen  found that people with more sensitive BAS reported more positive emotions during the positive mood induction, while people with more sensitive BIS reported more negative emotions during the negative mood induction. Since extraverts prefer engaging in social interactions more than introverts, they also derive more positive affect from such situations than introverts do.
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