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Experience Greenland - The Coolest Travel Destination in the World
They formed three settlements—known as the Eastern Settlement , the Western Settlement and the Middle Settlement —on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island. Norse Greenlanders submitted to Norwegian rule in the 13th century under the Norwegian Empire. Later the Kingdom of Norway entered into a personal union with Denmark in , and from was a part of the Kalmar Union. Medieval Norwegian sagas and historical works mention Greenland's economy as well as the bishops of Gardar and the collection of tithes. Icelandic saga accounts of life in Greenland were composed in the 13th century and later, and do not constitute primary sources for the history of early Norse Greenland. Interpretation of ice core and clam shell data suggests that between and , the regions around the fjords of southern Greenland experienced a relatively mild climate several degrees Celsius higher than usual in the North Atlantic,  with trees and herbaceous plants growing, and livestock being farmed. The Eastern Settlement was likely abandoned in the early to midth century, during this cold period. Theories drawn from archeological excavations at Herjolfsnes in the s, suggest that the condition of human bones from this period indicates that the Norse population was malnourished , maybe due to soil erosion resulting from the Norsemen's destruction of natural vegetation in the course of farming, turf-cutting, and wood-cutting. In , the Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman. Data support traces of a possible Norse soil amendment strategy. In their reluctance to see themselves as anything but Europeans, the Greenlanders failed to adopt the kind of apparel that the Inuit employed as protection against the cold and damp or to borrow any of the Eskimo hunting gear. No genes from the Paleo-Eskimos have been found in the present population of Greenland. The Thule culture was the first to introduce to Greenland such technological innovations as dog sleds and toggling harpoons. Finding the sea frozen, they headed south and arrived in Labrador and Newfoundland. Upon the brothers' return to Portugal, the cartographic information supplied by Corte-Real was incorporated into a new map of the world which was presented to Ercole I d'Este , Duke of Ferrara , by Alberto Cantino in The Cantino planisphere , made in Lisbon, accurately depicts the southern coastline of Greenland. The expeditions were mostly unsuccessful, partly due to leaders who lacked experience with the difficult arctic ice and weather conditions, and partly because the expedition leaders were given instructions to search for the Eastern Settlement on the east coast of Greenland just north of Cape Farewell , which is almost inaccessible due to southward drifting ice. The pilot on all three trips was English explorer James Hall. In , a joint mercantile and clerical expedition led by Danish-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland, not knowing whether a Norse civilization remained there. This expedition is part of the Dano-Norwegian colonization of the Americas. Gradually, Greenland was opened up to Danish merchants, and closed to those from other countries. Norway occupied then-uninhabited eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in July , claiming that it constituted terra nullius. Norway and Denmark agreed to submit the matter in to the Permanent Court of International Justice , which decided against Norway. On 8 April , the United States occupied Greenland to defend it against a possible invasion by Germany. Greenland was able to buy goods from the United States and Canada by selling cryolite from the mine at Ivittuut. Bluie was the military code name for Greenland. During this war, the system of government changed: Governor Eske Brun ruled the island under a law of that allowed governors to take control under extreme circumstances; Governor Aksel Svane was transferred to the United States to lead the commission to supply Greenland. The Danish Sirius Patrol guarded the northeastern shores of Greenland in using dogsleds. They detected several German weather stations and alerted American troops, who destroyed the facilities. After the collapse of the Third Reich, Albert Speer briefly considered escaping in a small aeroplane to hide out in Greenland, but changed his mind and decided to surrender to the United States Armed Forces. The Danish government had maintained a strict monopoly of Greenlandic trade , allowing only small scale troaking with Scottish whalers. In wartime Greenland developed a sense of self-reliance through self-government and independent communication with the outside world. Two years later, the first step towards a change of government was initiated when a grand commission was established. A final report G was presented in Greenland was to be a modern welfare state with Denmark as sponsor and example. In Greenland was made an equal part of the Danish Kingdom. Home rule was granted in Home rule and self-rule[ edit ] See also: Greenlandic independence The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik , the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland , Nuuk. Denmark refused to sell it. The United States tried to construct a subterranean network of secret nuclear missile launch sites in the Greenlandic ice cap, named Project Iceworm. It managed this project from Camp Century from to before abandoning it as unworkable. With the Danish constitution, Greenland's colonial status ended as the island was incorporated into the Danish realm as an amt county. Danish citizenship was extended to Greenlanders. Danish policies toward Greenland consisted of a strategy of cultural assimilation—or de-Greenlandification. During this period, the Danish government promoted the exclusive use of the Danish language in official matters, and required Greenlanders to go to Denmark for their post-secondary education. Many Greenlandic children grew up in boarding schools in southern Denmark, and a number lost their cultural ties to Greenland. While the policies "succeeded" in the sense of shifting Greenlanders from being primarily subsistence hunters into being urbanized wage earners, the Greenlandic elite began to reassert a Greenlandic cultural identity. A movement developed in favour of independence, reaching its peak in the s. This gave Greenland limited autonomy with its own legislature taking control of some internal policies, while the Parliament of Denmark maintained full control of external policies, security, and natural resources. The law came into effect on 1 May Also, Greenlanders were recognized as a separate people under international law. One country, two systems  Denmark maintains control of foreign affairs and defence matters. Denmark upholds the annual block grant of 3. This is generally considered to be a step toward eventual full independence from Denmark.
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