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Naagin 2 - 12th November 2016 - नागिन 2 - Full Episode
History[ edit ] In The Rest of the Robots, published in , Asimov noted that when he began writing in he felt that "one of the stock plots of science fiction was Knowledge has its dangers, yes, but is the response to be a retreat from knowledge? Or is knowledge to be used as itself a barrier to the dangers it brings? This was the first of a series of ten stories; the next year "Adam Link's Vengeance" featured Adam thinking "A robot must never kill a human, of his own free will. Three days later Asimov began writing "my own story of a sympathetic and noble robot", his 14th story. Campbell the editor of Astounding Science-Fiction. Campbell rejected it, claiming that it bore too strong a resemblance to Lester del Rey 's " Helen O'Loy ", published in December ; the story of a robot that is so much like a person that she falls in love with her creator and becomes his ideal wife. Campbell, from a conversation that took place on 23 December Campbell claimed that Asimov had the Three Laws already in his mind and that they simply needed to be stated explicitly. He wrote two robot stories with no explicit mention of the Laws, " Robbie " and " Reason ". He assumed, however, that robots would have certain inherent safeguards. All three laws finally appeared together in " Runaround ". When these stories and several others were compiled in the anthology I, Robot , "Reason" and "Robbie" were updated to acknowledge all the Three Laws, though the material Asimov added to "Reason" is not entirely consistent with the Three Laws as he described them elsewhere. During the s Asimov wrote a series of science fiction novels expressly intended for young-adult audiences. Originally his publisher expected that the novels could be adapted into a long-running television series, something like The Lone Ranger had been for radio. Fearing that his stories would be adapted into the "uniformly awful" programming he saw flooding the television channels  Asimov decided to publish the Lucky Starr books under the pseudonym "Paul French". When plans for the television series fell through, Asimov decided to abandon the pretence; he brought the Three Laws into Lucky Starr and the Moons of Jupiter, noting that this "was a dead giveaway to Paul French's identity for even the most casual reader". Susan Calvin expound a moral basis behind the Three Laws. Calvin points out that human beings are typically expected to refrain from harming other human beings except in times of extreme duress like war, or to save a greater number and this is equivalent to a robot's First Law. Likewise, according to Calvin, society expects individuals to obey instructions from recognized authorities such as doctors, teachers and so forth which equals the Second Law of Robotics. Finally humans are typically expected to avoid harming themselves which is the Third Law for a robot. Another character then asks Calvin if robots are very different from human beings after all. She replies, "Worlds different. Robots are essentially decent. The Laws just never happened to be put into brief sentences until I managed to do the job. The Laws apply, as a matter of course, to every tool that human beings use",  and "analogues of the Laws are implicit in the design of almost all tools, robotic or not": A tool must not be unsafe to use. Hammers have handles and screwdrivers have hilts to help increase grip. It is of course possible for a person to injure himself with one of these tools, but that injury would only be due to his incompetence, not the design of the tool. A tool must perform its function efficiently unless this would harm the user. This is the entire reason ground-fault circuit interrupters exist. Any running tool will have its power cut if a circuit senses that some current is not returning to the neutral wire, and hence might be flowing through the user. The safety of the user is paramount. A tool must remain intact during its use unless its destruction is required for its use or for safety. For example, Dremel disks are designed to be as tough as possible without breaking unless the job requires it to be spent. Furthermore, they are designed to break at a point before the shrapnel velocity could seriously injure someone other than the eyes, though safety glasses should be worn at all times anyway. Asimov believed that, ideally, humans would also follow the Laws: My answer is, "Yes, the Three Laws are the only way in which rational human beings can deal with robots—or with anything else. By Asimov[ edit ] Asimov's stories test his Three Laws in a wide variety of circumstances leading to proposals and rejection of modifications. Science fiction scholar James Gunn writes in , "The Asimov robot stories as a whole may respond best to an analysis on this basis: A robot may not harm a human being. This modification is motivated by a practical difficulty as robots have to work alongside human beings who are exposed to low doses of radiation. Because their positronic brains are highly sensitive to gamma rays the robots are rendered inoperable by doses reasonably safe for humans. The robots are being destroyed attempting to rescue the humans who are in no actual danger but "might forget to leave" the irradiated area within the exposure time limit. Removing the First Law's "inaction" clause solves this problem but creates the possibility of an even greater one: Gaia may not harm life or allow life to come to harm. Zeroth Law added[ edit ] Asimov once added a " Zeroth Law"—so named to continue the pattern where lower-numbered laws supersede the higher-numbered laws—stating that a robot must not harm humanity. The robotic character R. Daneel Olivaw was the first to give the Zeroth Law a name in the novel Robots and Empire ;  however, the character Susan Calvin articulates the concept in the short story " The Evitable Conflict ". In the final scenes of the novel Robots and Empire, R. Giskard Reventlov is the first robot to act according to the Zeroth Law. Giskard is telepathic , like the robot Herbie in the short story " Liar! The Zeroth Law is never programmed into Giskard's brain but instead is a rule he attempts to comprehend through pure metacognition. Though he fails — it ultimately destroys his positronic brain as he is not certain whether his choice will turn out to be for the ultimate good of humanity or not — he gives his successor R. Daneel Olivaw his telepathic abilities. Over the course of many thousands of years Daneel adapts himself to be able to fully obey the Zeroth Law. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. A condition stating that the Zeroth Law must not be broken was added to the original Three Laws, although Asimov recognized the difficulty such a law would pose in practice. Asimov's novel Foundation and Earth contains the following passage: In practice, we could never decide. A human being is a concrete object. Injury to a person can be estimated and judged. Humanity is an abstraction. He determines that it must be so unless the robot is clever enough to comprehend that its actions are for humankind's long-term good. A robot may not harm a human being, unless he finds a way to prove that ultimately the harm done would benefit humanity in general! The first case was a short-short story entitled " First Law " and is often considered an insignificant "tall tale"  or even apocryphal. Humorous, partly autobiographical and unusually experimental in style, "Cal" has been regarded as one of Gold's strongest stories. However, aside from the positronic brain concept, this story does not refer to other robot stories and may not be set in the same continuity. The title story of the Robot Dreams collection portrays LVX-1, or "Elvex", a robot who enters a state of unconsciousness and dreams thanks to the unusual fractal construction of his positronic brain. In his dream the first two Laws are absent and the Third Law reads "A robot must protect its own existence". Without the basic theory of the Three Laws the fictional scientists of Asimov's universe would be unable to design a workable brain unit. This is historically consistent: In "Little Lost Robot" Susan Calvin considers modifying the Laws to be a terrible idea, although possible,  while centuries later Dr. Gerrigel in The Caves of Steel believes it to be impossible. Gerrigel uses the term "Asenion" to describe robots programmed with the Three Laws. The robots in Asimov's stories, being Asenion robots, are incapable of knowingly violating the Three Laws but, in principle, a robot in science fiction or in the real world could be non-Asenion. Characters within the stories often point out that the Three Laws, as they exist in a robot's mind, are not the written versions usually quoted by humans but abstract mathematical concepts upon which a robot's entire developing consciousness is based. This concept is largely fuzzy and unclear in earlier stories depicting very rudimentary robots who are only programmed to comprehend basic physical tasks, where the Three Laws act as an overarching safeguard, but by the era of The Caves of Steel featuring robots with human or beyond-human intelligence the Three Laws have become the underlying basic ethical worldview that determines the actions of all robots. Each title has the prefix "Isaac Asimov's" as Asimov had approved Allen's outline before his death. The so-called New Laws are similar to Asimov's originals with the following differences: The philosophy behind these changes is that "New Law" robots should be partners rather than slaves to humanity, according to Fredda Leving , who designed these New Law Robots. According to the first book's introduction, Allen devised the New Laws in discussion with Asimov himself. All that is left for humans to do is to sit with folded hands. The Laws of Robotics are portrayed as something akin to a human religion , and referred to in the language of the Protestant Reformation , with the set of laws containing the Zeroth Law known as the "Giskardian Reformation" to the original "Calvinian Orthodoxy" of the Three Laws. Zeroth-Law robots under the control of R. Daneel Olivaw are seen continually struggling with "First Law" robots who deny the existence of the Zeroth Law, promoting agendas different from Daneel's. Others are based on the second clause " Daneel also comes into conflict with a robot known as R. Lodovic Trema whose positronic brain was infected by a rogue AI — specifically, a simulation of the long-dead Voltaire — which consequently frees Trema from the Three Laws. Trema comes to believe that humanity should be free to choose its own future. A robot may not harm sentience or, through inaction, allow sentience to come to harm. They therefore claim that it is morally indefensible for Daneel to ruthlessly sacrifice robots and extraterrestrial sentient life for the benefit of humanity. None of these reinterpretations successfully displace Daneel's Zeroth Law — though Foundation's Triumph hints that these robotic factions remain active as fringe groups up to the time of the novel Foundation. Daneel's secret influence on history through the millennia has prevented both the rediscovery of positronic brain technology and the opportunity to work on sophisticated intelligent machines. This lack of rediscovery and lack of opportunity makes certain that the superior physical and intellectual power wielded by intelligent machines remains squarely in the possession of robots obedient to some form of the Three Laws. Daneel is not entirely successful at this becomes clear in a brief period when scientists on Trantor develop " tiktoks " — simplistic programmable machines akin to real—life modern robots and therefore lacking the Three Laws. The robot conspirators see the Trantorian tiktoks as a massive threat to social stability, and their plan to eliminate the tiktok threat forms much of the plot of Foundation's Fear. In Foundation's Triumph different robot factions interpret the Laws in a wide variety of ways, seemingly ringing every possible permutation upon the Three Laws' ambiguities. Tiedemann 's Robot Mystery trilogy updates the Robot—Foundation saga with robotic minds housed in computer mainframes rather than humanoid bodies.
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